Index

Abu-­Samra, Haisam, 145, 148, 158
activists and activism: activism versus surveillance, 101–­4; Arab Spring, 108–­9, 145–­47; domestic protests, 147–­48; Facebook in Egypt, 107–­8; information sharing, 104–­7; as protesters, 107–­11; surveillance and loss of privacy, 109–­10, 138
actor–­network theory (ANT), 65–­66
actual and virtual in digital networks: Deleuze’s ontology, 83–­87; difference, 86–­90; repetition, 85–­87; virtual, definition, 83–­84
Agre, Phil, 39
algorithms, 46–­49
allegories, 46–­47
Alliance of Youth Movements summit, 139
alternate reality games (ARG), 149–­51
Andrejevic, Mark, 4–­5, 81, 160
Anonymous, 158
ANT. See actor–­network theory (ANT)
Arab Spring, 108–­9, 145–­47
ARG. See alternate reality games (ARG)
Assange, Julian, 106
asymmetrical warfare, 116

Baldwin, James, 79
Balibar, Etienne, 14
Barabási, Albert-­László, 41
Baudrillard, Jean, 83, 128
Benjamin, Walter, 15
Benkler, Yochai, 19
bicycle maps, 19–­20
blocking online political content, 109
Borgmann, Albert, 56, 98
Boswitch, Jonah, 118
Brey, Philip, 64
Brown, Chris, 124

Calderón, Felipe, 139
Carr, Nicholas, 28
Castells, Manuel, 10, 101
Cebrowski, Vice Admiral Arthur, 118
cell phone ownership, 5
cell phone remote control, 110
Chatterjee, Partha, 8, 16
China and Google, 135–­36
civilians in war, 116, 119, 121
Clinton, Hilary Rodham, 136–­38
Cohen, Jared, 139–­40
Colebrook, Claire, 84, 89
Coleman, Gabriella, 158
Coleman, Stephen, 27
collectivity, old and new models, 70–­73
commercialization and commodification, 23
commercial nature of social networks, 28–­30
commodification, 6, 22–­24, 56, 99
commons-­based peer production, 123
communicative capitalism, 20–­22, 147
communities, final, 56
communities, online and offline, 56–­58
conglomeration, media, and economics, 33–­35
consensus, 111–­13
consociates, 62
contemporaries, 62
Contractor, Noshir, 41, 44
control and ownership of networks, 19
corporations and foreign surveillance, 138
crowdsourced identification, 110
cyberpiracy, 131–­33

DDOS attacks. See distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks
Dean, Jodi, 20–­22, 81
DeLanda, Manuel, 45, 84
Deleuze, Gilles, xvi, 21, 69, 83–­89, 107
democracy and digital networks, 68–­70
de Peuter, Grieg, 131
Descartes, René, 59
DeTar, Charlie, 19
Dewey, John, 69
difference and Deleuze, 86–­90
Digg, 105–­6
digital divide, 12, 98–­100
digital enclosure, 4–­5
digitalism, 31, 129–­30
digital networks. See networks
Diken, Bülent, 1
disrupting the networks, 90–­93
distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks, 117
Dourish, Paul, 39, 67
Dreyfus, Hubert, 56–­58, 106
drones, 119
DVD encryption key, 105
Dyer-­Witheford, Nick, 131

Egypt: Facebook use, 107–­8; Internet shutdown, 145, 158
Eli Lilly, 102
Eliot, 96
Ellul, Jacques, xiv–­xv
encryption key publication, 105
episteme, 9–­10
epistemology, Cartesian, 59
Euler, Leonhard, 41
externality, 156

Facebook: activism in Egypt, 107–­8; diminished use in Gulf countries, 110; recent growth, 28–­29
Fascism, 15
final communities, 56
foldings, 92
folksonomies, 49, 51
Foucault, Michel, 128
Frank, Andre Gudner, 5
freedom of speech, 105–­6, 109–­10
Fuchs, Christian, 111

Galloway, Alexander, 24, 38, 81
Galloway, Anne, 99
Google: dominance, 28; e-­mail, 6–­7; maps, 19–­20; presence in China, 135–­36
Green Revolution, 140
Grygiel, Jacob, 73–­74

Habermas, Jürgen, 69
Hands, Joss, 81
Hardt, Michael, 1, 4, 13, 72, 81, 102, 130, 143
Harish, 95–­96
Heidegger, Martin, 63, 97
Heron, John, 128
Himanen, Pekka, 128
Hobbes, Thomas, 70
Hoy, David Couzens, 156
hybrid constructivism, 65–­66

immediacy and network mediation, 60
inequality in networks, 3–­6, 113
infoanarchism, 123
information sharing among activists, 104–­7
insurgency, 119–­21
intensity and network mediation, 60
Internet freedom and U.S. government, 134–­36
Internet nonusers, 155–­56
Internet suspension of service, 110, 145
Internet use, increase, 28–­29, 81
intimacy and network mediation, 60–­61

Kierkegaard, Søren, 56

Lanier, Jaron, 40
Latour, Bruno, 66, 82, 92, 98
Laustsen, Carsten Bagge, 1
Lee, Nick, 156
Levine, Peter, 26
liberation technologies: Arab Spring, 145–­47; domestic protests, 147–­48; liberation theology references, 146; limits, 145–­49; Stanford University program, 146
Lih, Andrew, 105
links: properties, 42–­43
Lippmann, Walter, 69
Locke, Matt, 52
Lovink, Geert, 81, 154
Lynch, Mark, 137
Lyotard, Jean-­François, 90–­91, 100–­101

Marxist theory, 22, 73
Massey, Doreen, 100
media: conglomeration, 33–­35; participatory, 30–­33; public and private, 30
mediated and unmediated self, 58–­59
mediation and obstruction of being, 62–­63
mediation biases, 59–­62
Mills, C. W., 69
models of networks, 9
Monge, Peter, 41, 44
Montgomery, Kathryn, 27
Morgan, Gareth, 37
Morozov, Evgeny, 81, 117
Mubarak, Hosni, 145
MySpace, recent growth, 28–­29

Negri, Antonio, 1, 4, 13, 72, 81, 102, 130, 143
net neutrality, 137–­38
netwars, 102, 116
networked and unnetworked self, 58–­59
networked security, 113–­16
networked self: enacting, 64–­67; governing, 67–­68
network logic: challenging, 13, 45–­46, 91, 149, 157; digital divide, 12, 98–­100; fear of unknown, 113; nodocentrism, 48, 75, 83, 89; paradoxes, 90; warfare, 116, 118–­19
network robustness, 41
networks: benefits of participation, 4; blocking access, 102; control and ownership, 19; definitions, xii–­xiii, 37; digital networks and democracy, 68–­70; disruption, 90–­93; enacting networked self, 64–­67; episteme, 9–­10; inclusion and exclusion, 75–­77; inequality, 3–­6, 113; logic and paradoxes, 90; mediation biases, 59–­62; models, 9; netwars, 102; paralogies, 90–­91; parasitology, 90; participation, 4, 25–­27; political uprisings, 107; properties of links, 42–­43; properties of networks, 42; properties of nodes, 42; proximity and distance, 97–­98, 101; publics and masses, 68–­70; rethinking, 81–­82; scale-­free, 41, 156; strategies for disruption, 91; surveillance, 3, 6, 103; wealth of networks, 156
network science: application to digital networks, 44; definition, 41; distribution of links, 41; organization, 38; predictability, 46; properties of networks, nodes, and links, 42–­43; social network analysis, 43–­45
node fitness, 41
nodes: properties, 42
nodocentrism, 9–­13, 16, 45–­46, 48, 83, 87, 101, 133, 156–­57
noise and communication, 16–­17

OBAMM. See Online Behavioral Analysis and Modeling Methadology (OBAMM)
Online Behavioral Analysis and Modeling Methadology (OBAMM), 103
open content, 123
OpenNet Initiative, 109
ownership and control of networks, 19

Pandith, Farah, 140
paradoxes of network logic, 90
paralogies, 90–­91, 99
paranodes, 115, 153–­54, 159
parasitology, 90
participation in networks, 4, 25–­27
participatory media, 30–­33
participatory war, 116–­18
Pasquinelli, Matteo, 123, 129
peer-­to-­peer (P2P) sharing: as alternative, 126; cyberpiracy, 131–­33; decentralized structure, 126–­29; limitations, 128–­29; new model of production, 123; “new socialism,” 129–­31; nodocentrism, 133
Plato, 58
playbor, 8, 25
political considerations: blocking access to networks, 102; Internet freedom, 134–­36; networks and political uprisings, 107; tools for activism, 104
political uprisings and networks, 107
preferential attachment process, 4
privacy issues: activists, 138; e-­mail concerns, 7; Internet freedom, 136; sacrifice of privacy, 5, 20, 26, 75; settings, 61, 158; surveillance and privacy, 109–­10
privatization: aspect of commodification, 22–­23; social spaces, 3
protesters and political dissent, 111
proximity and distance, 97–­98, 101
PSYOPs, 109
P2P sharing. See peer-­to-­peer (P2P) sharing
public and private media, 30
publics and masses, 68–­70

Quit Facebook Day, xi–­xii

radio frequency identification (RFID) blockers, 154
Rancière, Jacques, 112, 154
Rashid, Esraa Abdel Fattah Ahmed, 108
realism, 64
RFID blockers. See radio frequency identification (RFID) blockers
Rivers, Theodore, 63, 70, 89
Robb, John, 117
Rosen, Jay, 31
Ross, Alec, 140
Rossiter, Ned, 81
Rumsfeld, Donald, 113

SAFE. See SOMA Adversarial Forecast Engine (SAFE)
SANE. See SOMA Analyst NEtwork (SANE)
scale-­free networks, 41, 156
Scholz, Trebor, 40
Schutz, Alfred, 61–­62
Searls, Doc, 133
security: networked, 113–­16; personal, 21, 71, 75, 138; surveillance, 11, 103, 106
SEE. See SOMA Extraction Engine (SEE)
Shapiro, Samantha M., 107
Shirky, Clay, 52
Silverstone, Roger, 97
simultaneity and network mediation, 61–­62
slow food movement, 159
social allegories, 46–­47
social capital, 44
social computing, 39–­40
social constructivism, 64–­65
social contracts, 71, 75
socialization of labor, 23
social network analysis, 43–­45
social networks: commercial nature, 28–­30; recent growth, 28–­29; social network analysis, 43–­45
social production, 123
social tagging, 49–­51
SOMA. See Stochastic Opponent Modeling Agents (SOMA)
SOMA Adversarial Forecast Engine (SAFE), 120
SOMA Analyst NEtwork (SANE), 119–­21
SOMA Extraction Engine (SEE), 120
SOMA Terror Organization Portal (STOP), 119–­21
Spinoza, Baruch, 72
statelessness, 73–­75
Stenner, Paul, 156
Stochastic Opponent Modeling Agents (SOMA), 119–­21
STOP. See SOMA Terror Organization Portal (STOP)
strategies for network disruption, 91
surveillance: activism versus surveillance, 101–­4; crowdsourced identification, 110; networks, 3, 6, 11, 103; remote control of devices, 110; surveillance and loss of privacy, 109–­10, 138; video and camera, 103, 110, 115
Sützl, Wolfgang, 115

tags, 49–­51
technological determinism, 64
telesthetic warfare, 118–­19
Terranova, Tiziana, 81, 155
Thacker, Eugene, 81
Thomas, Graham, 155
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 69
Twitter Revolution, 108, 146
ubiquitous computing, 99

UK Uncut, 110
unmapping the networks, 90–­93
U.S. government and foreign media, 136–­37
U.S. government and Internet freedom, 134–­36

Vandenberghe, Frédéric, 26
van Dijk, Jan, 24, 43
video war games, 117
Virno, Paolo, 72, 73, 92, 130–­31
virtual and actual in digital networks: Deleuze’s ontology, 83–­87; difference, 86–­90; repetition, 85–­87; virtual, definition, 83–­84
Vodafone, 110

Walther, Joseph B., 60
war: asymmetrical warfare, 116; civilians, 116, 119, 121; DDOS attacks, 117; individual computers, 116–­17; insurgency, 119–­21; participatory war, 116–­18; telesthetic warfare, 118–­19; video games, 117
wealth of networks, 156
Wellman, Barry, 43
WikiLeaks, 106, 160–­61
Wikinomics, 123
Wikipedia, 31, 112, 123
Winner, Langdon, 92, 159
Wise, J. Macgregor, 66
Woolgar, Steve, 155
Wyatt, Sally, 155

YouTube, 33, 123–­25, 139, 145–­46

Zuckerman, Ethan, 105–­6, 111

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